World Wildlife Day 2018
Big cats: predators under threat

“Big cats are among the most widely recognized and admired animals across the globe. However, today these charismatic predators are facing many and varied threats, which are mostly caused by human activities. Overall, their populations are declining at a disturbing rate due to loss of habitat and prey, conflicts with people, poaching and illegal trade. For example, tiger populations plummeted by 95% over the past 100 years and African lion populations dropped by 40% in just 20 years. But a range of measures are underway to arrest this decline.

In an effort to reach as wide an audience as possible, the expanded definition of big cats is being used, which includes not only lion, tiger, leopard and jaguar -- the 4 largest wild cats that can roar - but also cheetah, snow leopard, puma, clouded leopard, etc. Big cat species are found in Africa, Asia, and North, Central and South America, representing a virtually global distribution, and representations of big cats, such as for car logos, by sporting clubs and the fashion industry, are used globally.

Over the past century we have been losing big cats, the planet’s most majestic predators, at an alarming rate. World Wildlife Day 2018 gives us the opportunity to raise awareness about their plight and to galvanize support for the many global and national actions that are underway to save these iconic species. Through World Wildlife Day big cats will generate the level of attention they all deserve to be sure they are with us for generations to come.”

Participate in the discussion on twitter @WildlifeDay

Picture (c) N.J. Bastiaensen (nielsbastiaensen.com) 2014 (bottom) 2017 (top)

Know the difference ?

  • IN CAPTIVITY

    FARM OR COMPANION ANIMAL


    means an animal of a domesticated species that lives under direct human supervision or control.


    CAPTIVE WILD ANIMAL


    means an animal that has a phenotype not significantly affected by human selection but that is captive or otherwise lives under direct human supervision or control, including zoo animals and pets.


  • FREE ROAMING

    FERAL ANIMAL


    means an animal of a domesticated species that now lives without direct human supervision or control.


    WILD ANIMAL


    means an animal that has a phenotype unaffected by human selection and lives independent of direct human supervision or control.


  • Photos (c) A. Daamen (top left), S. O'Rourke (bottom left), BlogSpot (top right), V. Brown (bottom right)

OIE disease portals

OIE working group on wildlife


OIE Working Group on Wildlife (portal) Founded in 1994, this Working Group informs and advises the OIE on all health problems relating to wild animals, whether in the wild or in captivity. It has prepared recommendations and oversees numerous scientific publications on the surveillance and control of the most important specific wildlife diseases. The Working Group comprises world-leading scientific experts in their subject areas.

Photo (c) S. Muset (2012)

WAHIS


The World Animal Health Information System (portal) Several OIE–listed animal diseases affect not only domesticated animal species (e.g. farmed ruminants, such as cattle), but also wild species (e.g. wild ruminants such as African buffaloes). When such an OIE-listed disease occurs in an individual or population of wildlife species, the Veterinary Services inform the OIE which links the information through its World Animal Health Information System, or WAHIS. In the course of 2016 and 2017, the following (OIE-listed) diseases have been reported in wildlife:

13 Oct. 2017 Namibia : Anthrax (hippopotamus)
22 Sep. 2017 Tanzania : Anthrax (hippopotamus)
24 Jul. 2017 South Africa : Avian Influenza (wild birds)
14 Feb. 2017 Cameroon : Avian Influenza (wild birds)
15 Jan. 2017 Uganda : Avian Influenza (wild birds)
02 Nov. 2016 Zambia : Anthrax (hippopotamus)
03 Feb. 2016 Botswana : Anthrax (elephant)

WAHIS Wild


The OIE Worldwide Monitoring System for Wild Animal Diseases (portal) Wildlife diseases may have a serious impact on livestock health and public health and can adversely affect wildlife conservation. Disease surveillance in wildlife must be considered just as important as surveillance in domestic animals. The OIE was a precursor in recognising the importance of having a good knowledge of the disease situation in wildlife and has been collecting worldwide information on wildlife diseases since 1993. Since 2008, major improvements have been introduced aimed at collecting quantitative and qualitative data on wild animals from Member Countries. The type of data collected has been brought into line with the data collected as part of the World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS), which has itself been further developed to better address the disease situation in wild animals for OIE-listed diseases. To improve the efficacy and efficiency of data collection, since 2013 a new section has been added to WAHIS to notify diseases specific for wild animals and to replace the previous Excel questionnaire that the OIE has been using since 1993 to collect data on wildlife diseases.

OIE Collaborating Centres with specific expertise on wildlife

Research, Diagnosis and Surveillance of Wildlife Pathogens


National Wildlife Health Center
US Geological Survey
US Department of Interior
6006 Schroeder Road, Madison, Wisconsin, WI 53711
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
+1-608 270.24.01 | jsleeman@usgs.gov
www.nwhc.usgs.gov

This multi-national OIE Collaborating Centre includes participation from the following institution:


Canadian Cooperative Wildlife Health Centre
Western College of Veterinary Medicine
University of Saskatchewan
52 Campus Drive, Saskatoon S7N 5B4
CANADA
+1-(306) 371-7177 | www.cwhc-rcsf.ca
national@cwhc-rcsf.ca | cstephen@cwhc-rcsf.ca

Training in Integrated Livestock and Wildlife Health and Management


Department of Veterinary Tropical Diseases
Faculty of Veterinary Science
University of Pretoria, Private Bag X04, Onderstepoort 0110
SOUTH AFRICA
+27-12 529.84.26 | fax: +27-12 529.83.12
anita.michel@up.ac.za

Chapters of the OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code (2017) dealing (in part or entirely) with wildlife

Volume I

Glossary
SECTION 1. ANIMAL DISEASE DIAGNOSIS, SURVEILLANCE AND NOTIFICATION
Chapter 1.1. Notification of diseases, infections and infestations, and provision of epidemiological information
Chapter 1.2. Criteria for the inclusion of diseases, infections and infestations in the OIE list
Chapter 1.3. Diseases, infections and infestations listed by the OIE
Chapter 1.4. Animal health surveillance
Chapter 1.6. Procedures for self declaration and for official recognition by the OIE
SECTION 3. QUALITY OF VETERINARY SERVICES
Chapter 3.2. Evaluation of Veterinary Services
SECTION 4. GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS: DISEASE PREVENTION AND CONTROL
Chapter 4.3. Zoning and compartmentalisation
Chapter 4.4. Application of compartmentalisation
Chapter 4.12. Disposal of dead animals
SECTION 5. TRADE MEASURES, IMPORT/EXPORT PROCEDURES AND VETERINARY CERTIFICATION
Chapter 5.10. Model veterinary certificates for international trade in live animals, hatching eggs and products of animal origin
SECTION 6. VETERINARY PUBLIC HEALTH
Chapter 6.5. Prevention, detection and control of Salmonella in poultry
Chapter 6.10. Risk analysis for antimicrobial resistance arising from the use of antimicrobial agents in animals
Chapter 6.11. Zoonoses transmissible from non-human primates
SECTION 7. ANIMAL WELFARE
Chapter 7.7. Stray dog population control

Volume II

SECTION 8. MULTIPLE SPECIES
Chapter 8.1. Anthrax
Chapter 8.2. Infection with Aujeszky's disease virus
Chapter 8.4. Infection with Brucella abortus, B. melitensis and B. suis
Chapter 8.5. Infection with Echinococcus granulosus
Chapter 8.6. Infection with Echinococcus multilocularis
Chapter 8.7. Infection with epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus
Chapter 8.8. Infection with foot and mouth disease virus
Chapter 8.9. Heartwater
Chapter 8.11. New world screwworm (Cochliomyia hominivorax) and Old world screwworm (Chrysomya bezziana)
Chapter 8.13. Infection with rabies virus
Chapter 8.15. Infection with rinderpest virus)
Chapter 8.16. Infection with Trichinella spp.
SECTION 9. APIDAE
Chapter 9.1. Infestation of honey bees with Acarapis woodi
Chapter 9.2. Infection of honey bees with Paenibacillus larvae (American foulbrood)
Chapter 9.3. Infection of honey bees with Melissococcus plutonius (European foulbrood)
Chapter 9.5. Infestation of honey bees with Tropilaelaps spp.)
Chapter 9.6. Infestation of honey bees with Varroa spp. (Varroosis)
SECTION 10. AVES
Chapter 10.4. Infection with avian influenza viruses
Chapter 10.9. Infection with Newcastle disease virus
SECTION 11. BOVIDAE
Chapter 11.5. Bovine tuberculosis
Chapter 11.6. Bovine tuberculosis of farmed cervidae
Chapter 11.11. Lumpy skin disease (caused by group III virus, type Neethling)
SECTION 12. EQUIDAE
Chapter 12.1. Infection with African horse sickness virus
Chapter 12.6. Infection with equine influenza virus
Chapter 12.11. Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis
SECTION 13. LEPORIDAE
Chapter 13.1. Myxomatosis
Chapter 13.2. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease
SECTION 14. CAPRINAE
Chapter 14.3. Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia
Chapter 14.7. Infection with peste des petits ruminants virus
SECTION 15. SUIDAE
Chapter 15.1. African swine fever
Chapter 15.2. Infection with classical swine fever virus

Capacity-building of OIE focal points for wildlife (in Africa)

Picture (c) P. Bastiaensen (oie) 2016

Ebola and animal health

The OIE received a grant from the European Union to implement the five year (2017-2021) project “Capacity building and surveillance for Ebola Virus Disease” (EBO-SURSY). In order to implement this project, the OIE has teamed up with the Centre de coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement (CIRAD), Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD) and the Institut Pasteur (IP).


The project aims to strengthen national and regional early detection systems in wildlife in West and Central Africa using a One Health multi-sectoral approach to better detect, differentiate and prevent future Ebola Virus Disease outbreaks or outbreaks of other emerging zoonotic pathogens through three main approaches:
1: Build institutional and One Health capacity through teaching and training;
2: Contribute to increasing the communities’ awareness of zoonotic diseases;
3: Reinforce zoonotic disease surveillance protocols through field investigations and improved diagnostic assays;

What you need to know on Ebola and animal health

Important OIE publications on wildlife





Health Risk Analysis in Wild Animal Translocations

Partnerships and Agreements

Partnerships

CPW Collaborative Partnership on Sustainable Wildlife Management

Factsheet 3: Sustainable wildlife management and animal health

Wildlife and livestock interactions can lead to bi-directional disease transmission, competition for resources and direct predation. An integrated management approach is essential, particularly given current human population growth and intensification of agriculture. This fact sheet focuses on wildlife/livestock health and the key role of sustainable wildlife management in this area.

Picture (c) F. Diaz (oie) 2016

Cooperation agreements between the OIE and intergovernmental organisations and other international non-governmental organisations dealing with wildlife


Agreement with International Council for Game and Wildlife Conservation (CIC)


Memorandum of Understanding between the OIE and the
International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN)


Agreement with the Secretariat of the Convention on International
Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora
(CITES Secretariat)

Links to intergovernmental organisations and other international non-governmental organisations dealing with wildlife

AU-IBAR (wildlife) | CIC | CITES | DVTD (UP) | FAO (CPW) | FAO (wildlife) | IUCN | NWHC(USGS) | World Wildlife Day

 

International Conferences, hosted by the OIE


OIE Global Conference on Wildlife Animal – Health and Biodiversity Paris (France) 23-25 February 2011

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